Galanga" Kha"
Related to giner and looks quite similar, but is pinkish and has a distinct peppery flavor. Greater Galanga is an erect annual plant with aromatic rhizomes, and commonly used in Thai cookery as a flavoring. It can be eaten either raw or cooked. It is used in curry pastes, stir-fries and soups, and available fresh and dried.

Pandan Leaf" Bai Toey Hom"
Long narrow green leaves of a herbaceous plant used for flavoring and color. There is no substitute of the flavoring and color. There is no substitute for the flavor but green coloring may be used as a substitute for the color. Medicinal Uses:Maintains the heart and liver in good condition, relieves fever and soothes sore throat.

Lemon Grass" Ta Khrai"
An aromatic herb that is used in curry pastes, stir-fries and soups. The base of 10-12 centimeters length of the plant is used with the green leafy part discarded. For pastes and salads, use the tender, white portion just above the root. Young tender lemongrass stalks can be finely chopped and eaten, but older stalks should be cut into 3-5 centimeter lengths and bruised before being added only as a flavoring agent. It is indispensable for tom yam.

Shallot"Hom Daeng"
Shallots, or small red onions, are annual herbaceous plants. Underground bulbs comprise garlic-like cloves. These small, zesty, Thai red onions are sweet and aromatic. An essential ingredient in many Thai dishes because of their taste and appearance, they can be substituted with European shallots, small red onions or small brown onions. Shallot bulbs contain a volatile oil, and are used as flavoring or seasoning agents.

Holy Basil" Bai Ka Phrao"
This variety tastes rather like cloves, and is just as pungent, which explains its alternative name; hot basil. The leaves release their full flavour only when cooked. Use holy basil as fresh as possible, in fish dishes, and beef and chicken curries.

Kaffir" Ma Krut "
The leaves, peel and juice of the Kaffir Lime are used as a flavoring in Thai cuisine. Imparting a unique flavor, they can be finely shredded and added to salads, or torn and added to soups and curries. Can be substituted with other lemon-flavored herbs, but the best option is to freeze the leaves when you can find them, as they retain all their flavor and texture on thawing. The leaves and peel contain a volatile oil. The major therapeutic benefit of the juice is as an appetizer.

Coriander/ Cilantro " Phak Chee "
Cilantro is the leaf of the young coriander plant, Coriandrum sativum, an herb in the parsley family, similar to anise. Coriander is the most common herb used in Thai cooking. The whole plant is used--the root, stem and leaves. The leaves are often chosen for decoration. The seeds are roasted and then ground in a spice mill and used in curry pastes. The leaves are used for their fresh, peppery flavor, and as a garnish.

This erect annual plant with aromatic rhizomes and yellow-brown roots, is used as a flavouring. The rhizomes contain approximately 0.8% volatile oil. The plant has stomach ache relieving and antimicrobial properties, and therapeutic benefits as an antitussive and antiflatulence agent.

Ginger: "Khing"
Ginger: "Khing" Ginger is an erect plant with thickened, fleshy and aromatic rhizomes. Used in different forms as a food, flavouring and spice. Ginger's rhizomes contain a 1-2% volatile oil. Ginger's therapeutic uses are as a carminative, antinauseant and antiflatulence agent.

Chili: "Phrik"
Chili is an erect, branched, shrub-like herb with fruits used as garnishing and flavouring in Thai dishes. There are many different species. All contain capsaicin, a biologically active ingredient beneficial to the respiratory system, blood pressure and heart. Other therapeutic uses include being a , carminative and anti flatulence agent, and digestant.

Kaffir Lime Leaf "Bai Ma Krut "
From the kaffir lime, which has virtually no juice these fleshy green and glossy leaves resemble a figure eight. Imparting a unique flavour, they can be finely shredded and added to salads, or torn and added to soups and curries. Can be substituted with other lemon-flavoured herbs, but the best option is to freeze the leaves when you can find them, as they retain all their flavour and texture on thawing

Garlic: "Kra-thiam"
Garlic is an annual herbaceous plant with underground bulbs comprising several cloves. Dried mature bulbs are used as a flavouring and condiment in Thai cuisine. The bulbs contain a 0.1-0.36% garlic oil and organic sulfur compounds. Therapeutic uses are as an antimicrobial, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, anti flatulence and cholesterol lowering agents.

Lime: "Ma-nao"
Lime is used principally as a garnish for fish and meat dishes. The fruit contains Hesperidin and Naringin , scientifically proven antiinflammatory flavonoids. Lime juice is used as an appetizer, and has antitussive, anti flu, stomachic and antiscorbutic properties.

Mint: "Sa-ra-nae"
The fresh leaves of this herbaceous plant are used as a flavouring and eaten raw in Thai cuisine. Volatile oil contents give the plant several therapeutic uses, includingcarminative, mild antiseptic, local anesthetic, diaphoretic and digestant properties.

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